* Preface
* History
* A Brief Introduction to Administrative Litigation
* Jurisdiction and Organization
* Trial and Judges
* Trial Procedure
* Facilities and Service
* Concluding Remarks

Trial and Judges

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5. Trial and Judges

Administrative courts are specialized courts responsible for administrative litigations that arise from public-law cases and controversies. Administration litigations, depending on the level which the litigation is at, may be adjudicated by a judge or a panel of three or five judges. This Court is a high administrative court, and, therefore, cases are adjudicated by a panel of three judges. When the panel considers it necessary, the panel may appoint one of the three judges to investigate evidence. Cases at the Supreme Administrative Court are adjudicated by a panel of five judges. Administrative litigation tribunals adjudicate cases by one judge, instead of a panel of judges.

Courtroom design

Area for Adjudication Activities

Area for the public to audit the proceedings

Explanations: (Tables accompany all the seats except for the seats available to the public. Additional tables may, if needed, be set up in the area for adjudication activities. Seat for Judicial Associate Officers is set up only in High Administrative Courts.)

1. Seat for the presiding judge

2. Seat for a judge

3. Seat for a judge

4. Seat for a judge

5. Seat for a judge

6. Seat for the court clerk

7. Seats for the interpreter, recording, and handing over of files and evidence

8. Seat for the Technical Reviewer, and Seat for Judicial Associate Officers

9. Seat for the Agent of Plaintiff (Appellant, Intervenor)

10. Seat for the Agent of Defendant (Appellee, Intervenor)

11. Seat for Plaintiff (Appellant, Intervenor)

12. Seat for Defendant (Appellee, Intervenor)

13. Seat for People other than the Plaintiff and the Defendant to answer questions

14. Seats for Witnesses, Expert Witnesses, and Independent Intervenors

15. Seats for Apprentice Judges or Apprentice Prosecutors

16. Seats for Apprentice Lawyers and media reporters

17. Seats available to the public

18. Seat for Judge on Temporary Assignment







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